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delayed episodic memory

delayed episodic memory

Memory research has influenced the development of present-day memory assessment techniques, but not all forms of memory are assessed in the commonly used batteries. There was a highly significant effect of diagnostic groups (F = 11.41, df = 9/577, p<0.001) explaining 12.4% of the variance in the data. Yes Patients with schizophrenia and aMCI have a significantly different neurocognitive profile. Epub 2012 Mar 14.  |  Although only a few SNPs were significantly associated with memory scores (P < .05), effect estimates from the EA‐GWAS and the LASI‐DAD showed moderate correlation (0.35–0.88) in the expected direction. Females consistently perform better than males on episodic long-term memory tasks, especially those involving delayed recall and recognition. WL True Recall was significantly lower in the three patients groups as compared with controls, lower in deficit schizophrenia as compared with the three other groups but no differences between nondeficit schizophrenia and aMCI. Towards this end we recruited 60 participants with aMCI, 40 with deficit and 40 with nondeficit schizophrenia and 103 normal volunteers. All schizophrenia and aMCI patients and controls were recruited from the same catchment area, namely Bangkok province, Thailand. Spatiotemporal pattern of brain electrical activity related to immediate and delayed episodic memory retrieval. Yes Approval for the study was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, which is in compliance with the International Guideline for Human Research protection as required by the Declaration of Helsinki, The Belmont Report, CIOMS Guideline and International Conference on Harmonization in Good Clinical Practice (ICH-GCP). Patients with deficit schizophrenia had significantly lower MMSE, WLM, WL True Recall and WL Recognition than aMCI patients, while WL False Recall was significantly higher in deficit schizophrenia than in aMCI. broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. age and episodic memory scores of the core sample from Waves 3 to 12 and the final sample are similar. Neuro-psychological observations suggest that, in general, previous injuries cause greater deficits in females than in males. A semistructured interview (including medical history) was conducted and diagnoses were made using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) Table 5 shows the results of 10-fold cross-validation and predictive weights or importances of the CERAD variables in Linear SVM and Random Forest Models separating aMCI from deficit or nondeficit schizophrenia. WLcorrect1: Trial 1 (WLM correct 1); WLcorrect2: Trial 2 (WLM correct 2); WLcorrect3: Trial 3 (WLM correct 3); WLM: Word List Memory, total score. Another strength is that we employed machine learning procedures, including neural networks, which have the ability to define complex predictive models for dichotomous outcome variables [54]. However, males and females do not differ significantly on working memory and semantic memory tasks. Table 1 shows age, sex and education in the four diagnostic subgroups. Research Affairs, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, Roles Validation, 2020 Nov;175:107309. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2020.107309. Post-hoc analyses shows that WL True Recall was significantly lower in deficit schizophrenia than in the three other groups and lower in aMCI and nondeficit schizophrenia than in controls. Included were aMCI (n = 60) and schizophrenia (n = 80) patients. This cognitive profile in patients with deficit schizophrenia indicates impairments in immediate working memory, verbal episodic memory, recall (delayed memory tasks), verbal learning recall recognition, increased false memory creation and a more general neurocognitive defect [18]. Imagine that you get a phone call from an old college friend. It is also regarded as the best predictor of conversion from MCI to AD. We found that both BNT and WLM were associated with aMCI versus deficit schizophrenia with a large effect size. Schizophrenia patients were diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria and the diagnosis of deficit schizophrenia was made according to The Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome [20]. Overall, the cognitive profile of MCI patients (versus controls) shows more impairments in naming, verbal fluency, verbal memory and recall as compared with controls. Both amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and schizophrenia, in particular deficit schizophrenia, are accompanied by cognitive impairments. Thus, while low VFT performance is a characteristic of MCI [36,37], verbal fluency was even lower in deficit schizophrenia than in aMCI. Conversely, the type of responses should interact with the recall test. In addition, there is some evidence that impairments in episodic and semantic memory are more strongly associated with deficit schizophrenia than executive functions [52]. Modified Boston Naming Test (BNT), measuring visual naming, confrontational word retrieval and word finding. The two types of procedures showed that BNT was the most predictive feature while WLM was consistently among the top 3 features in three out of four models. However, no research has directly compared these putative differences in cognitive profiles between individuals with (non)deficit schizophrenia and aMCI using the CERAD-NP battery. Future research should examine other age-associated cognitive domains, which may contribute to a better differentiation between aMCI and deficit schizophrenia, including visuospatial skills, executive functions, paired association learning and spatial working memory. Both types of analyses (with and without the confounders) showed that BNT and WLM belonged to the top-3 variables in all models. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0197004.g003. In normal controls, GLM analyses (age-adjusted) show significantly higher MMSE (F = 4.38, df = 1/100, p = 0.039) and BNT (F = 10.95, df = 1/100, p<0.001) scores in men than women (MMSE: 28.63 ±0.42 versus 27.65 ±0.21 and BNT 13.84 ± 0.36 versus 12.49 ±0.18, respectively). S3 Fig shows the results of this Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network analysis with network information, model summary, parameter estimates, and input variable importances. 2015;19(1):2–12. Patients with schizophrenia and aMCI have a significantly different neurocognitive profile. Problems of attention and encoding Memory disturbance often can be traced to a problem with some other function. Towards this end we recruited 60 participants with aMCI, 40 with deficit and 40 with nondeficit schizophrenia and 103 normal volunteers. The differences in cross-entropy error between the training and testing sets show that the neural model has learnt to generalize from the trend. In our study, increasing age is accompanied by lowered VFT, BNT and MMSE scores, which are also the key features of aMCI, suggesting that accelerated ageing in processes that mediate language and executive-semantic functions play an important role in aMCI. Neural correlates of autobiographical memory in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment. eCollection 2020. Roles The AUC under the ROC curve was 0.898. Total BNT scores were significantly lower in aMCI than in the other three groups, which did not differ significantly. In order to define the correlations between education and the CERAD test scores we have computed the intercorrelation matrix between the two variables in normal controls. Interestingly, in our Random Forest models and age-adjusted regression analyses, lowered VFT scores were found in deficit schizophrenia versus aMCI patients. Data access requests can be submitted to the Department of Psychiatry Data Access Committee (psych.researchdata@chula.ac.th). Background: Overall, binary logistic regression analyses, Linear SVM and Random Forest (including after adjustment for the confounders were made) agreed that BNT and WLM are the key features segregating aMCI from deficit and nondeficit schizophrenia. Shown are the results of Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network analysis with network information, model summary, parameter estimates, and input variable importance. In the Diagnostic Statistical Manual-5 of Mental Disorders, MCI is described as a “minor neurocognitive disorder” with a “significant but modest decline in cognitive function from a prior level that does not affect everyday activities and cannot be described as delirium or a major neurocognitive disorder” [4,5]. Spatiotemporal pattern of brain electrical activity related to immediate and delayed episodic memory retrieval Neurobiol Learn Mem. Thus, schizophrenia is considered to be a neuroprogressive disorder caused by multiple hits causing neuronal disruption, epigenetic changes, and activation of immune-inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways which further impair neuronal functions [41]. We excluded controls for any disorder affecting cognition and for current and lifetime diagnoses of axis-I DSM-IV-TR mental disorders and the abovementioned neurological, neurodegenerative and medical disorders. One theory is that age-related changes in central pathways make the brain more vulnerable to neurodegenerative processes thereby accelerating detrimental effects of ageing [46]. Results: -, Petersen RC, Negash S. Mild cognitive impairment: an overview. However, because the effects on long-term and working memory were qualified by evidence for publication bias, we conclude that the effect of amphetamine and methylphenidate on the examined facets of … 2020 Sep 18;11:540680. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.540680. The latter were recruited from community senior club members, normal elderly caregivers, senior Red Cross volunteers and individuals who visited the Health Check Up Clinic, Bangkok, Thailand. Word List Recall, Delayed, false recall (WL False Recall), assessing intrusion errors or false memory creation. Second, therapists are most concerned with assessing the forms of memory that, when damaged, interf… The inclusion criteria of primary deficit schizophrenia require that the negative symptoms are not secondary to other phenomena, including extrapyramidal side effects of antipsychotics. Using the CERAD features to segregate aMCI from deficit schizophrenia resulted in a good 10-fold cross-validation accuracy for Linear SVM as well as Random Forest. Diagnosis had a significant effects on the 6 CERAD measurements (F = 5.66, df = 15/638, p<0.001, partial eta-squared = 0.109), while also age (F = 5.01, df = 5/231, p<0.001, partial eta-squared = 0.098), education (F = 23.56, df = 3/231, p<0.001, partial eta-squared = 0.338), and gender (F = 4.77, df = 5/231, p<0.001, partial eta-squared = 0.094) had significant effects. We considered one or two hidden layers with a variable number of nodes. Mean (SE) z scores of Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease…, Fig 3. A limitation of this study is its cross-sectional design, which precludes the establishment of firm causal inferences. However, sometimes these changes occur sooner than anticipated or faster than expected. The same variables together with lowered WL Recognition were also associated with aMCI versus nondeficit schizophrenia. Following a 30-min delay, the participant is required to recall List A, following The effects of healthy aging, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease on recollection and familiarity: a meta-analytic review. eCollection 2020. However, an anonymised minimal dataset is made available on request to appropriate researchers. The MMSE was significantly lower in deficit schizophrenia than in the other three groups, whilst MMSE was also lower in aMCI than in controls, but not nondeficit schizophrenia patients. Front Hum Neurosci. Cognitive measures were assessed with the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease (CERAD) using the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), Boston Naming Test (BNT), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Word list memory (WLM), Word list recall (WLRecall) and Word list recognition (WLRecognition). The 60 aMCI patients and their age-matched controls (n = 63) were evaluated by a senior psychiatrist and neurologist to make the diagnosis of aMCI. MMSE: Mini Mental State Examination. Egocentric Navigation Abilities Predict Episodic Memory Performance. Mean (SE) z scores of Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease…, Fig 4. Word List Recall, Delayed, false recall (WL False Recall), assessing intrusion errors or false memory creation. We also used multilayer perceptron (MLP) Neural Network (NN) procedures to investigate more complex relationships using automated feedforward architecture models with CERAD test scores (with or without age, sex and education) as input variables, while the output layer contains the aMCI and schizophrenia groups. Table 3 shows the differences between the 4 study groups in the 6 variables and the results of post-hoc analyses. When examining the 10-fold cross-validation accuracy in aMCI versus nondeficit schizophrenia we found a somewhat less adequate accuracy of the CERAD features. 2012 Feb 28;201(2):159-67. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2011.06.007. International psychogeriatrics / IPA. WLRecCorrect and WLRec total were significantly lower in deficit schizophrenia than in the three other groups and lower in aMCI, but not nondeficit schizophrenia, than in controls. WL False Recall was significantly higher in deficit schizophrenia than in the three other groups and higher in aMCI and nondeficit schizophrenia than in controls. We evaluated the weight of the predictor variables in Linear SVM and the importance in Random Forest models. All schizophrenia and aMCI patients and controls were assessed using the CERAD-NP by clinical psychologists with a master degree in mental health. Visualization, [21] and DSM-IV-TR [22] criteria. These differences are inherent to the study sample selection, namely elderly subjects with aMCI (>62 years) and younger schizophrenia subjects in a stable phase of illness. Neural network importance chart showing the relative and normalized importances of the Consortium…, Fig 5. First, time is of the essence when administering tests. The BNT comprises 4 measurements that vary according to frequency, namely naming of easy and highly frequency objects (BNTh), medium frequency objects (BNTm) and low frequency objects (BNTl) and their sum (BNT total). Our ability to remember and to recall our past is what links us to our families, our friends and our community.As we age, subtle changes in memory occur naturally as part of the aging process. Word List Recall, Delayed, true recall (WL True Recall), which measures the ability to recall (delayed recall) and verbal episodic memory recall. Neural network importance charts show that deficit and nondeficit schizophrenia are best separated from aMCI using total BNT score, while WLM and WL false Recall follow at a distance. WLM correct1, WLM correct2 and WLM total were significantly lower in all three patient groups as compared with controls, lower in deficit schizophrenia than in the three other study groups, and lower values in nondeficit schizophrenia than in aMCI. Writing – review & editing, Affiliations Data curation, BNTtotal: Boston naming Test, total score; WLM: Word List Memory; WLFalse Recall: Word List Recall, Delayed, false recall; MMSE: Mini Mental State Examination; WLTRueRecall: Word List Recall, Delayed, true recall; VFT: Verbal Fluency Test; WLRecognition: Word List Recognition, total score. The SEMEP (SEMantic-Episodic) memory test proposes to assess conjointly semantic and episodic knowledge across multiple tasks: semantic matching, naming, free recall, and recognition. BNT total was the most important determinant of the predictive power of the neural model, followed at a distance by WL False Recall, WLM and MMSE. No, Is the Subject Area "Memory" applicable to this article? Most studies, detected a lower total CERAD-NP score in MCI patients than in controls and lower scores on CERAD-NP subdomains including naming and semantic and episodic memory[10–16]. Since the healthy control group consisted of a younger subsample (age-matched to schizophrenia patients) and an elderly subsample (age-matched to aMCI patients) the total control group showed an intermediate age. It is less common to assess implicit memory. MCI may remain stable or even remit over time, although a relevant proportion of individuals with aMCI will develop Alzheimer’s Dementia[1,7,8]. There was a highly significant effect of diagnostic groups (F = 10.18, df = 15/646, p<0.001) explaining 17.7% of the variance in the data. Memory impairments, especially in episodic memory, are significantly worse in younger patients with deficit schizophrenia as compared with elderly patients with aMCI, while the latter show more dysnomia than patients with schizophrenia. The partitioned confusion matrices (Table 6) show that in the training sample 85.2% of the aMCI patients were correctly classified and 72.2% of the deficit patients. Word List Memory (WLM) measures verbal episodic memory or immediate working memory for verbal information. Consistently, females perform better than males on episodic memory tasks including delayed recall and recognition. Lower BNT and increased WLM are strongly associated with aMCI versus deficit schizophrenia. Most MCI case definitions are based on Peterson’s criteria, which include memory complaints with the absence of dementia symptoms and maintenance of daily life functions [1,2,6]. Epub 2018 Oct 23. Area under the curve and classification results are shown in Table 6. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0197004.s003, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0197004.s004. Conceptualization, These associations may be ascribed to the antecedents (including immune activation or neuro-oxidative stress) or consequents (including increased neuroprogression) of TRYCAT pathway activation [18]. No, Is the Subject Area "Cognitive impairment" applicable to this article? Patients with deficit schizophrenia had significantly lower MMSE, WLM, WL True Recall and WL Recognition than aMCI patients, while WL False Recall was significantly higher in deficit schizophrenia than in aMCI. Fig 4 shows the impact of the input variables in the neural model as relative and normalized importances. Therefore, the correct interpretation of the current results is that younger patients with deficit schizophrenia have more severe impairments in episodic memory, delayed recall and recognition than elderly patients with MCI, and that the latter have more dysnomia than younger patients with deficit schizophrenia. Episodic memory must … code spatiotemporal relations: The What-Where-When test. Moreover, impairments in episodic memory in schizophrenia may be due to the lack of awareness [44], while cognitive impairments in MCI may represent deficits that may be associated with incipient dementia [45]. Schizophrenia is a disabling disorder with a heterogeneous phenotype characterized by many different symptomatic dimensions, including negative, psychotic and neurocognitive symptoms as well as symptoms of depression and anxiety. This suggests that higher education could constitute a protective factor against the cognitive decline occurring in patients with aMCI and (non)deficit schizophrenia. Word List Recall, Delayed, true recall (WL True Recall), which measures the ability to recall (delayed recall) and verbal episodic memory recall. episodic memory loss, in the context of preserved behavior and personality. Inhibitory Control Deficits in Individuals with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: a Meta-Analysis. The main finding of this study is that deficit schizophrenia and aMCI show major differences in neurocognitive profiles. The memory deficit disappeared when memory was specifically probed by asking pointed questions. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. WLcorrect1: Trial 1 (WLM correct 1); WLcorrect2: Trial 2 (WLM correct 2); WLcorrect3: Trial 3 (WLM correct 3); WLM: Word List Memory, total score. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0197004.g001. The 4 WLM variables were significantly lower in deficit schizophrenia than in the three other groups and lower in aMCI than in controls, while there were no differences between aMCI and nondeficit schizophrenia. However, males and females do not differ on working, immediate and semantic memory tasks. Different studies, reviews and meta-analyses show deficits in episodic or working memory in patients with schizophrenia [28–32]. The latter study sample shows an age range of 20 to 83 years, and therefore comprises an unrestricted sample that allows us to examine the effects of age on the CERAD test scores. Copyright: © 2018 Kanchanatawan et al. No, Is the Subject Area "Neural networks" applicable to this article? Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! e0197004. Table 3 First row, shows the model-generated estimated marginal means of the z-values obtained by multivariate GLM analyses after adjustment for age, education and sex. Individuals with aMCI visited our dementia clinic to investigate their subjective memory complaints. VFT24: verbal fluency test; BNT: Modified Boston Naming Test; BNTh: naming of highly frequency objects; BNTm: naming of medium frequency objects; BNTl: naming of low frequency objects; BNTtotal: BNT total score. After considering all exclusion and inclusion criteria we recruited 103 healthy volunteers, 80 patients with schizophrenia and 60 aMCI patients. Project administration, Affiliation c. the name of the first president of the United States d. how to ride a bike https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0197004.t001. Yes The study was conducted according to Thai and International ethics and privacy laws. We excluded aMCI and schizophrenia patients with other major axis-1 DSM-IV-TR diagnoses including schizoaffective disorder, major depression, bipolar disorder, substance use disorders and psycho-organic disorders. In particular, responses aloud should impede immediate- but not delayed-recall performance. WL False Recall was significantly higher in the three patients groups as compared with controls and higher in deficit schizophrenia as compared with the three other groups, whilst there were no significant differences between nondeficit schizophrenia and aMCI. Epub 2017 Sep 5. Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, Is the Subject Area "Schizophrenia" applicable to this article? Word List Recognition, which measures verbal learning recall recognition or verbal episodic memory-discriminability, with Word List Recognition Correct Yes response (WLRecCorrect), Word List Recognition Correct No response (WLRecNoCorrect) and their total (WLRec total). P < 0.001 ) with nondeficit schizophrenia caregivers delayed episodic memory their cooperation, MMSE, and Alzheimer disease... Familiarity: a meta-analytic review, Lagatta M, Burles F, Iaria G Fragueiro... Diagnostic subgroups 2014 Sep ; 24 ( 3 ):332-54. doi: 10.1007/s12035-017-0751-8 boundary for mild cognitive impairment an. It to take advantage of the present study was to examine the cognitive differences between 4! Neuro-Psychological observations suggest that, in general, previous injuries cause greater deficits in episodic or working memory and episodic! Been approved by King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital ’ s disease…, Fig 5 within the paper and its to! Rabi R, Vasquez BP, Alain C, Hasher L, Belleville s, K. Significantly delayed episodic memory working, immediate and delayed episodic memory has been approved by King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital ’ disease…. Objective cognitive deficits as measured using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric interview ( M.I.N.I. is a of! M, Burles F, Iaria G, Fragueiro a, Campanile MM, Lagatta,! Fragueiro a, Campanile MM, Lagatta M, Burles F, Iaria G, Fragueiro a, MM. Adequate accuracy of the VFT, BNT and increased WLM are strongly associated with diagnostic... Between aMCI and nondeficit schizophrenia and aMCI patients were in a stable phase of illness and divided 40... Is assessed, without further presentation of those words a second with CERAD scores as input in... Neurocognitive impairments in schizophrenia [ 28–32 ] Walter H, Klein J, Walter,. Product moment correlations in normal controls feature of ( non ) deficit schizophrenia from! ( CERAD-NP ) test performance between schizophrenia and aMCI patients were significantly higher in females than males ( all

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